The countries of the Mediterranean basin share agroecological and climatic conditions and have similar constraints (water scarcity, land degradation, and an ancient cultural heritage. Another common feature, particularly in the Southeast countries, is its low food self-sufficiency and the existence of unsuitable production factors. Here transform agriculture into a environmentally friendly activity can counteract the negative effects of globalization, Organic farming (OF) is a production model that promotes rural development and contributes to sustainable development. In some Mediterranean countries (Italy or Spain), the surface devoted to his method has achieved a significant relevance of the total agricultural area and is become an important engine of development. Vegetables and fruits like citrus crops are representing a significant volume of this production, which needs specific attention. In 2005, the first International Conference of citriculture (Biocitrics) was organized in Candia (Valencia), with support of IFOAM EU & ABM, and the delivered conclusions and recommendations has served to a better understanding of this production sector and to promote its own development. Now the is a need to recover that initiative, organising this first symposium, which should be the beginning of a serial addressing scientific and technical topics to promote exchange or the results of research and agroecological innovation in the area of organic plant production in this geographical and cultural zone.